What is Power BI? | An Overview

Abhiraj Singh Chauhan
7 min readMay 7, 2023


Business intelligence (BI) is the name given to the technology, tools, and methodologies that are used to gather, analyze, and present data in a way that enables organizations to make wise decisions and acquire an understanding of their business operations. It entails compiling data from numerous sources, turning it into useful information, and presenting it in a way that business users can understand and use.

Data integration, data modeling, data warehousing, data mining, and data analysis are just a few of the many tasks covered by business intelligence (BI). To assist strategic planning, operational efficiency, and performance enhancement, decision-makers are to be given precise, up-to-date, and pertinent data.

On the other hand, data visualization is a crucial element of business intelligence. It involves presenting data graphically to aid in comprehension, research, and analysis. Data visualizations convey complicated data sets in a visual style that is simple to understand and draw conclusions from using charts, graphs, maps, and other visual features.


1. First Wave: Analyst to End User Wave:-

- The first BI wave, also known as the Analyst to End User Wave, was largely concerned with delivering tools and solutions for data analysts and technical users.

- These users were in charge of using specialized BI tools and systems to extract, convert, and analyze data.

- The focus was on producing reports, creating data models, and running intricate queries to glean insights from the data.

- Technical knowledge was necessary for the first wave of BI, which was predominantly driven by IT departments.

2. Second Wave: Self-Service Wave:-

- The second wave resulted in a dramatic change in favor of self-service BI, allowing consumers to access and analyze data without having to rely primarily on IT.

- Self-service BI systems have appeared, giving simple data exploration and visualization capabilities, drag-and-drop functionality, and intuitive user interfaces.

- Business users now have the option to design their reports, dashboards, and visualizations, giving them greater freedom to investigate data and come to informed conclusions.

- By democratizing BI and enabling a wider variety of users to access data for decision-making, the second wave aimed to lessen reliance on IT for routine reporting and analysis.

3. Third Wave: Advanced Analytics and AI

- The incorporation of advanced analytical methods and artificial intelligence (AI) capabilities into BI platforms defines the third wave of business intelligence (BI).

- To gain useful insights from data, this wave focuses on utilizing machine learning, predictive analytics, natural language processing, and AI algorithms.

- Organizations can acquire predictive and prescriptive insights using advanced analytics, moving beyond descriptive reporting and enabling proactive decision-making.

  • The third wave focuses on automation, anomaly detection, and the application of algorithms powered by AI to find hidden patterns and trends in data, opening up fresh commercial prospects.

Why Power BI

For several convincing reasons, Power BI is a popular choice for both enterprises and individuals:

  1. Strong Data Visualisation Capabilities:

Power BI offers strong data visualization tools that let users design beautiful and interactive dashboards, reports, and charts. It gives users the ability to turn difficult data into understandable visualizations with eye-catching aesthetics.

2. Power BI provides easy connections with a variety of data sources, including databases, online services, spreadsheets, and more. To ensure a comprehensive view of data for analysis and reporting, it enables users to link, combine, and convert data from many sources.

3. Self-Service Analytics:

Power BI gives business users the ability to perform self-service analytics, which lessens the need for IT personnel to handle data analysis and reporting. Users may explore data, produce interactive visualizations, and obtain insights using its user-friendly interface and drag-and-drop capability without needing a lot of specialized technical knowledge.

4. Active Collaboration:

Power BI enables users to share dashboards and reports with coworkers, clients, or stakeholders, facilitating active collaboration. Real-time updates and commenting tools encourage productive dialogue and decision-making based on the most recent information.

5. Connection across the Microsoft Ecosystem:

Azure, Excel, SharePoint, and Teams are just a few of the Microsoft products and services that Power BI connects with without any issues. Through this integration, customers may take advantage of current Microsoft investments, gain access to new features, and build a unified environment for reporting and data analytics.


Microsoft created the business intelligence and data visualization application known as Power BI. Users can connect to different data sources, transform and model data, and produce interactive visualizations and reports with this tool. People and organizations may use Power BI to analyze data, develop new perspectives, and make data-driven choices.

A few of Power BI’s essential elements are:

  1. Power BI Desktop:

The Windows program used to create interactive reports and visualizations is called Power BI Desktop. It offers a wide range of data modeling and manipulation features in addition to a design canvas for reporting.

2. Power BI Service:

Users may publish, share, and collaborate on reports and dashboards using this cloud-based platform. It offers features like data security, information sharing with stakeholders, and data updates.

3. Power BI Mobile:

Users may access their reports and dashboards on smartphones and tablets with Power BI Mobile. It offers a responsive and optimized experience for using mobile devices to view and interact with data.

Understanding Power BI’s Architecture

Data communication, data transformation, data modeling, visualization, and collaboration are all made possible by the architecture of Power BI, which includes several interconnected components. An overview of the architecture is provided here:

  1. Data Sources:

Power BI supports connecting to a variety of data sources, including files (Excel, CSV, XML, etc.), cloud services (Azure, Salesforce, Google Analytics, etc.), and databases (SQL Server, Oracle, MySQL, etc.).

Data from various sources is extracted and changed using Power Query into a format that can be analyzed.

2. Power Query:

Power Query is a data mash-up and transformation tool included with Power BI. Users can connect to data sources, perform data transformations (such as cleaning, shaping, combining, and others), and then load the changed data into Power BI for analysis.

3. Data Model:

The data model, which comprises tables, columns, relationships, and measures, is the cornerstone of Power BI.

- Using DAX (Data Analysis Expressions) formulas, users of Power BI’s data modeling engine can construct relationships between tables and create calculated columns and metrics. To organize and enrich the data and make it simpler to analyze and visualize, the data model offers a semantic layer.

4. Power BI Desktop:

Users may design and produce interactive reports and visualizations with this Windows application.

- It offers a wide range of data visualization tools, such as graphs, tables, maps, and personalized graphics.

- Users can establish data hierarchies, create interactive dashboards, and use a variety of formatting and design options.

5. Power BI Service:

Users may publish, share, and work together on Power BI material on this cloud-based portal.

- By uploading locally developed Power BI Desktop files (PBIX) to the Power BI Service, users may access reports and dashboards from any location via a web browser or mobile application.

- The Power BI Service provides further features including data synchronization, scheduling, security of data, teamwork, and collaboration with stakeholders and coworkers.

6. Power BI Mobile:

Through specialized mobile apps, Power BI Mobile enables users to access their reports and dashboards on smartphones and tablets. Users can access and engage with data while on the go thanks to the responsive and optimized mobile apps.

7. Power BI Gateway:

Secure connections between on-premises data sources and the Power BI Service are made using the Power BI Gateway. It guarantees data confidentiality and privacy while enabling real-time data access and refresh from on-premises databases.

Users of Power BI can connect to data sources, transform and model the data, produce interactive reports and visualizations, and share insights with others thanks to the software’s architecture. It gives users access to a complete environment for complete data analysis and visualization.

Who can use Power BI?

  1. Business Users:

Without largely depending on IT or data specialists, Power BI enables business users from all departments and roles to explore and analyze data. To obtain insights, track important indicators, and make data-driven decisions, business users can develop interactive reports, dashboards, and visualizations.

2. Data Analysts and Data Scientists:

Power BI is a fantastic tool for data analysts and data scientists since it offers robust data manipulation, modeling, and visualization capabilities. To gain insights and create predictive and prescriptive analytics solutions, they can make use of Power BI’s advanced analytics capabilities, incorporate machine learning models, and perform complicated data transformations.

3. IT specialists:

In adopting and overseeing Power BI within organizations, IT specialists are essential. They are in charge of data governance, security, and connectivity across data sources. IT experts manage user access and rights, set up data refresh schedules, and make sure that data sources are securely connected, optimized, and connected.

4. Executives and Decision-Makers:

Key performance indicators (KPIs) and important company metrics can be viewed in a consolidated manner by executives and decision-makers thanks to Power BI. They can keep tabs on company performance, keep track of targets, and learn about market trends, consumer behavior, and operational effectiveness, giving them the information they need to make wise strategic decisions.

5. Data Architects and Developers:

Power BI gives data architects and developers create and customization tools. Custom graphics may be made, powerful data models can be developed using DAX (Data Analysis Expressions), and Power BI can be integrated with other software and services utilizing APIs and tools for developers.



Abhiraj Singh Chauhan

👨‍💻 Software Engineer | Technology | Finance | Hey there! I thrive on learning and writing from my learnings about new technology stack and personal finance.